Wallenstein pledged his army, which numbered between 30,000 and 100,000 soldiers, to Ferdinand II in return for the right to plunder the captured territories. Meanwhile, Sweden and Denmark, both Lutheran kingdoms, sought to assist the Protestant cause in the Empire, and wanted to gain political and economic influence there as well. Mother Courage, a canteen woman, pulls her cart with her three children (Eilif, Kattrin, and Swiss Cheese) in the wake of the army, trading with the soldiers and attempting to make profit from the war.. We are first introduced to a Recruiting Officer and a Sergeant, who complain about the difficulty of recruiting soldiers for the war. It occurred for a number of reasons. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. The Thirty Years' Warwas a conflict fought between the years 1618and 1648, principally in the Central Europeanterritory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. Nevertheless, it did settle many outstanding European issues of the time. After the Protestant Reformation, these independent states became divided between Catholic and Protestant rulership, giving rise to conflict. Soldiers were to be rewarded for meritorious service. asked the tavern drinkers in Goethe’s Faust—and the answer is no easier to find today than in the late 18th, or early 17th, century. The 30 Years' War, which took place in the first half of the 17th century, is one of the most devastating wars in European history. From 1618 to 1648, a series of conflicts was fought between Roman Catholic and Protestant states, in part to answer the question of what churches European Christians were allowed to attend. The social and economic impact of the Thirty Years War varied throughout Europe. The causes of the Thirty Years War in Western Europe: By 1600, two camps had emerged in western Europe: France and the United Provinces The House of Habsburg (Spain and Austria) Phillip III of Spain attempted to continue the foreign policy aspirations of his father, Phillip II, which essentially meant that Spain had to be … The Thirty Years’ War was a major European war that occurred during the 17th century. The religious conflict eventually spread across the whole continent of Europe, involving France, Sweden, and a number of other countries. first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Ever since the Peace of Westphalia ended The Thirty Years' War, the balance of political power among the countries of Europe has changed. Understand the origins of the Thirty Years’ War. 's' : ''}}. Its major belligerents included France, Sweden, Austria, Denmark, and numerous princes of the Holy Roman Empire. Gustav was concerned about the growing power of the Holy Roman Empire, and like Christian IV before him, was heavily subsidized by Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister of Louis XIII of France, and by the Dutch. The military reforms—among which tight discipline was one of the prevailing principles—brought the Swedish military to the highest levels of military readiness and were to become the standard that European states would strive for. From 1630 to 1634, Swedish-led armies drove the Catholic forces back, regaining much of the lost Protestant territory, especially at the key Battle of Breitenfeld. This angered those who sought religious uniformity. Finally, German princes were forbidden from establishing alliances amongst themselves or with foreign powers, and amnesty was granted to any ruler who had taken up arms against the emperor after the arrival of the Swedes in 1630. In this lesson we explore the Thirty Years' War and the subsequent Peace of Westphalia. During this time, and while Sweden was under a truce with Poland, Gustav established a military system that was to become the envy of Europe. The Holy Roman Empire was a fragmented collection of largely independent states, which, after the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, was divided between Catholic and Protestant rulership. On May 23, 1618, an assembly of Protestants seized them and threw them (and also secretary Philip Fabricius) out of the palace window, which was some sixty-nine feet off the ground. Ferdinand received support from Albrecht von Wallenstein, who led troops to defeat Christian IV’s army. Moreover, some 6,000 English troops under Charles Morgan also eventually arrived to bolster the defense of Denmark, though it took longer for them to arrive than Christian had hoped, due partially to the ongoing British campaigns against France and Spain. The Thirty Years War - A Summary -Change in Social Condition- Late Medieval existence for the peasantry was one of unwitting confinement on the lands of a provincial lord. From 1630 to 1634, Swedish-led armies drove the Catholic forces back, regaining much of the lost Protestant territory. Sweden received Western Pomerania, Wismar, and the Prince-Bishoprics of Bremen and Verden as hereditary fiefs, thus gaining a seat and vote in the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. The Battle of Breisach was fought on 18 August — 17 December 1638 as part of Thirty Years' War. Defenestration of Prague: A later woodcut of the Defenestration of Prague in 1618, which triggered the Thirty Years’ War. In the twenty-first century, we take religious freedom for granted: if you don't like the church you attended last Sunday, try the one across the street. These states employed relatively large mercenary armies, and the war became less about religion and more of a continuation of the France-Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence. The Peace of Westphalia established the precedent of peaces established by diplomatic congress, and a new system of political order in central Europe, later called Westphalian sovereignty, based upon the concept of co-existing sovereign states. 122 lessons Then, the tide began to turn for the French. The Polish royal family, the primary branch of the House of Vasa, had once claimed the throne of Sweden. Despite the odds being stacked against them, the Swedish army won. Ferdinand had wanted them to administer the government in his absence. Frederick was forced to sign an armistice with Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II, thus ending the “Palatine Phase” of the Thirty Years’ War. The war's results and the terms of the Peace of Westphalia shaped the nature of European politics and power for decades following. Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister of King Louis XIII of France, made the decision to enter into direct war against the Habsburgs in 1634, but France suffered military defeats early on, losing territory to the Holy Roman Empire. Denmark’s cause was aided by France, which together with Charles I had agreed to help subsidize the war, not the least because Christian was a blood uncle to both the Stuart king and his sister Elizabeth of Bohemia through their mother, Anne of Denmark. The French conquered Arras from the Spanish following a siege that lasted from June 16 to August 9, 1640. The Calvinist rebels in Bohemia appealed to the other Protestant states in the Holy Roman Empire for help in throwing off Catholic rule, but their efforts and those of the few allies they found failed; the Bohemians were defeated decisively by Ferdinand - now Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II - in 1620 at the Battle of White Mountain. Issuance of unrestricted letters of marque and reprisal to privateers was forbidden. The dispute culminated after several battles in the final Battle of White Mountain, where the Protestants suffered a decisive defeat. The emperor's prerogatives had never been clearly defined; a ruler who knew how to exploit his considerable informal powers of patronage could enjoy a great deal of authority, but a weak monarch could easily be reduced to a mere figurehead. The Peace of Westphalia established important political precedents for state sovereignty, inter-state diplomacy, and balance of power in Europe. Along with several territorial adjustments, the terms of the Peace of Westphalia included a return to the principles in the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, in which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of his own state. As the rebellion collapsed, the widespread confiscation of property and suppression of the Bohemian nobility ensured the country would return to the Catholic side after more than two centuries of Protestant dissent. Painting by Grisaille by Adrian van de Venne, 1643. In the Holy Roman Empire, where the Emperor remained a staunch Catholic, members of these sects often had to fight to defend their rights to worship or emigrate to states with princes or monarchs sympathetic to Protestantism. After several attempts by the Holy Roman Empire to prevent the spread of Protestantism in Europe, King Gustav II Adolf of Sweden ordered a full-scale invasion of the Catholic states. This became known as the first battle in the Thirty Years’ War. At the beginning of the 17th century, the Rhine lands and those south to the Danube were largely Catholic, while the north was dominated by Lutherans, and certain other areas, such as west-central Germany, Switzerland, and the Netherlands, were dominated by Calvins. In fact, the population of the Holy Roman Empire, the conflict’s main theatre, did not recover its prewar levels until around 60 years after the war ended. The treaty also stipulated that Sweden would not conclude a peace with the Holy Roman Emperor without first receiving France’s approval. Initially after the Peace of Prague, the Swedish armies were pushed back by the reinforced imperial army north into Germany. While Sweden was under a truce with Poland, Gustav reformed the Swedish military, leading to an army that became the model for all of Europe. Along with ending open warfare between the belligerents, the Peace of Westphalia established several important tenets and agreements: There were also several territorial adjustments brought about by the peace settlements. These tensions came to a head in 1618 in the Germanic state of Bohemia. When Arras fell, the way was opened for the French to take all of Flanders. All parties would recognize the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, in which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of his own state, the options being Catholicism, Lutheranism, and now Calvinism. In the Second Battle of Breitenfeld, in 1642, outside Leipzig, the Swedish Field Marshal Lennart Torstenson defeated an army of the Holy Roman Empire led by Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria and his deputy, Prince-General Ottavio Piccolomini, Duke of Amalfi. Services. Ferdinand II was a devout Roman Catholic and relatively intolerant when compared to his predecessor, Rudolf II. | 11 In fact, almost all of the powerful countries in Europe were involved in the war. Only in the relatively minor Mantuan episode did France have any military involvement but this was short-lived and did not involve the major European powers. 16 chapters | Blues indicate Catholic regions and red/orange indicate Protestant (including Lutheran, Calvinist, Hussite, and Reform). This was a serious blow to Protestant ambitions in the region. Summary "One of the most momentous and destructive wars in European history, the Thirty Years War has long been studied for its diplomatic, political, and military consequences. One of the causes of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) was the growing religious and political tension between Roman Catholics and Protestant Christians. Early French military efforts were met with disaster, and the Spanish counter-attacked, invading French territory. In 1618 the Calvinists revolted, famously by first throwing some of Ferdinand's Catholic advisers out a church window in Prague, an event which became known as the Defenestration of Prague. However, other Protestants supported the stance taken by the Catholics, and in 1617 Ferdinand was duly elected by the Bohemian Estates to become the Crown Prince and, automatically upon the death of Matthias, the next King of Bohemia. The Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years’ War, when King Gustav II Adolf of Sweden ordered a full-scale invasion of the Catholic states, was a major turning point of the war. Pragmatically, the Peace achieved several things. Chris has an M.A. After the death of Matthias in 1619, Ferdinand II was elected Holy Roman Emperor. What Is The Difference Between NGSS & CCSS? credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. After dismissing Wallenstein in 1630, from fear he was planning a revolt, Ferdinand II became dependent on the Catholic League. Inter-state aggression was to be held in check by a balance of power. The Protestant rebellion had been crushed. With another military success for the Catholics, Ferdinand II took back several Protestant holdings and declared the Edict of Restitution in an attempt to restore the religious and territorial situations reached in the Peace of Augsburg. Since 1526, the Kingdom of Bohemia had been governed by Habsburg kings who did not force their Catholic religion on their largely Protestant subjects. The Habsburg cause in the next few years would seem to suffer unrecoverable reverses. in history and taught university and high school history. Over the next four years, fighting continued, but all sides began to prepare for ending the war. Thus, in the following two years, the Catholic powers subjugated more land. After this catastrophe, Frederick V, already in exile in The Hague, and under growing pressure from his father-in-law, James I, to end his involvement in the war, was forced to abandon any hope of launching further campaigns. courses that prepare you to earn The two army groups moved south in the spring of 1636, re-establishing alliances on the way, including a revitalized one with Wilhelm of Hesse-Kassel.  The Thirty Years War: Causes, Issues, or Results The Thirty Years War was a series of European battles from 1618 to 1648, fought primarily in Germany. After that, the imperialist and the Protestant German sides met for negotiations, producing the Peace of Prague (1635), which entailed a delay in the enforcement of the Edict of Restitution for forty years and allowed Protestant rulers to retain secularized bishoprics held by them in 1627. King Gustav of Sweden: The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631). The Thirty Years War began as a religious civil war between the Protestants and Roman Catholics in Germany that engaged the Austrian Habsburgs and the German princes. These rulers avoided religious wars within the empire by allowing the different Christian faiths to spread without coercion. And it was this upheaval – not military conflict per se – that took the heaviest human toll. Twelve of their heads were impaled on iron hooks and hung from the Bridge Tower as a warning. Ferdinand II, educated by the Jesuits, was a staunch Catholic who wanted to impose religious uniformity on his lands. While the conflict took place mainly in the area of modern day Germany, it involved many of the great European powers at that time. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal Some 13,700 Scottish soldiers under the command of General Robert Maxwell, 1st Earl of Nithsdale, were sent as allies to help Christian IV. Ferdinand II may have feared that Wallenstein would switch sides, and arranged for his arrest after removing him from command. Though it was primarily centered in Germany, several other countries became involved in the conflict, including France, Spain, and Sweden. Create an account to start this course today. Christian IV of Denmark: Christian IV receives homage from the countries of Europe as mediator in the Thirty Years’ War. Many of the imperial territories established in the Peace of Westphalia later became the sovereign nation-states of modern Europe. Study.com has thousands of articles about every France aligned its strategy with the allied Swedes in Wismar (1636) and Hamburg (1638). The effects of the war included the creation of the Peace of Westphalia and a start to remaking the … This made him highly unpopular in Protestant Bohemia. Danish involvement, referred to as the Low Saxon War, began when Christian IV of Denmark, a Lutheran who also ruled as Duke of Holstein, a duchy within the Holy Roman Empire, helped the Lutheran rulers of neighboring Lower Saxony by leading an army against Ferdinand II’s imperial forces in 1625. The king of Sweden, Gustav II Adolph, had been well informed of the war between the Catholics and Protestants in the Holy Roman Empire for some time, but his hands were tied because of the constant enmity of Poland. To fight Christian, Ferdinand II employed the military help of Albrecht von Wallenstein, a Bohemian nobleman who had made himself rich from the confiscated estates of his Protestant countrymen. Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister of King Louis XIII of France, considered the Habsburgs too powerful because they held a number of territories on France’s eastern border, including portions of the Netherlands. Ferdinand II’s suspicion of Wallenstein resumed in 1633, when Wallenstein attempted to arbitrate the differences between the Catholic and Protestant sides. Wallenstein lacked a fleet, and neither the Hanseatic ports nor the Poles would allow the building of an imperial fleet on the Baltic coast. Sweden did not take part in the Peace of Prague, and it joined with France in continuing the war. The spark that set off the Thirty Years War came in 1618, when the Archbishop of Prague ordered a Protestant church destroyed. From 1618 to 1648 a series of conflicts engulfed much of Europe. In the 17th century, religious beliefs and practices were a much larger influence on an average European. Richelieu had already begun intervening indirectly in the war in January 1631, when the French diplomat Hercule de Charnacé signed the Treaty of Bärwalde with Gustavus Adolphus, by which France agreed to support the Swedes with 1,000,000 livres each year in return for a Swedish promise to maintain an army in Germany against the Habsburgs. The two Swedish armies combined and confronted the imperialists at the Battle of Wittstock. The tide of the war turned clearly toward France and against Spain in 1640, starting with the siege and capture of the fort at Arras. Ferdinand was upset by this calculated insult, but his intolerant policies in his own lands had left him in a weak position. He was increasingly viewed as unfit to govern, and other members of the Habsburg dynasty declared his younger brother, Matthias, to be family head in 1606. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Westphalia and Peace of Augsburg: States' Rise to Sovereignty and Decline of the Empire, The 30 Years' War & the Birth of the Enlightenment, The 30 Years War: Catholics vs. Protestants, Revolutions of 1848 & the Spring of Nations: Major Revolutions, Causes & Collapse, The Glorious Revolution of 1688: Events and Significance, The Holy Roman Empire: Politics & Religion, The War of Austrian Succession: Summary and Effects on the World, The French Wars of Religion: Catholics vs. the Huguenots, Political Realism Theory: Definition & Principles, The English Civil War: Summary, Causes, Effects & Timeline, The Commercial Revolution: Economic Impact of Exploration and Colonization on Europe, The Unification of Italy: Summary, Timeline & Leaders, Congress of Vienna: Members, Objectives & Results, Social and Economic Life in Early Modern Europe: Peasantry, Nobility & Early Modern Economies, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor: Accomplishments, Facts & Quotes, Theoretical Approaches to International Relations: Realism, Liberalism & Marxism, Colonial Mercantilism: Definition, History & Effects, The Unification of Germany: Summary, Timeline & Events, CLEP Western Civilization I: Study Guide & Test Prep, Western Civilization I: Certificate Program, English 103: Analyzing and Interpreting Literature, Environmental Science 101: Environment and Humanity, Psychology 105: Research Methods in Psychology. 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