By Douglas Walton, Christopher Reed, Fabrizio Macagno
This ebook presents a scientific research of many universal argumentation schemes and a compendium of ninety six schemes. The learn of those schemes, or kinds of argument that trap stereotypical styles of human reasoning, is on the middle of argumentation learn. Surveying all features of argumentation schemes from the floor up, the ebook takes the reader from the simple exposition within the first bankruptcy to the newest state-of-the-art within the examine efforts to formalize and classify the schemes, defined within the final bankruptcy. It offers a scientific and entire account, with notation appropriate for computational purposes that more and more utilize argumentation schemes.
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Extra info for Argumentation Schemes
Most importan tly. :\'. < K >;j . p. al prem ise . A rgu mmtation from Anawgy, Classifiration, and Prf'redent 45 based on argument from classification, which is in turn based on other argumentation schemes like the scheme for argument from an estab l ished rule and the scheme for argument from precedent. We suggest that a consideration of how all these schemes tit together and apply to typical cases of legal reasoni ng, like that of the drug-sniffing dog, should suggest the need for a new approac h to the role of argument from anal ogy in analyzing the structure of such arguments .
Ational argumentation . The bottom line is that the binding nature of a presumptive scheme needs to he sough t in the relationship between the scheme and the critical qut·stiuns that match it. ay. The obvious way is for him to either accept the argument or ask one of the set of appro priate cri tical questions. This way of approaching the problem is quite at trac tive, as it allows for defeasibility of presumptive schemes. Sufficiency doesn't mean that the respondeil t has to accept the conclusion of the argument, period.
With defeasible arguments . the si tuation is more complex, because an opponent can attack the inten·nt·e rule. the warrant or generalization the argumen t is based on. by citing an exception to the rule. Thus, in general , a defeasible argu ment can be attacked in only three ways. by an auack on a premise, by a counterargument ·wi th an opposite conclusion , or by an argument attacking the inference rule. But some set• the inference rule as really j ust acting as anotht·r premise. You can attack it, or you can auack any other prem ise of the argument.
Argumentation Schemes by Douglas Walton, Christopher Reed, Fabrizio Macagno