By Yoshie Kobayashi
This dissertation is the 1st examine of nation feminism in a non-western country country, concentrating on the actions and roles of the Women's Bureau of the Ministry of work in post-World struggle II Japan.
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Additional resources for A Path Toward Gender Equality: State Feminism in Japan
15 On the other hand, the bureaucratization, not femocratization, of the women’s policy agency also sets limitations on the Japanese female officers. The bureaucratization caused the strategy of ‘femocracy’ to be less apparent in the Japanese situation, but the bureaucratization constructs a particular type of state feminist strategy. Scrutiny of the activities of the Women’s Bureau reveals how the women bureaucrats connected gender equality policy with the de-gender policy of other ministries such as a foreign policy to persuade their male elite counterparts to implement the policy, which was unfavorable for women and why they failed in gaining supports of the women’s groups.
On the other 16 A PATH TOWARD GENDER EQUALITY hand, witnessing both the establishment of policy agencies for women originated from women’s movements in society and endeavors of the agencies for improvement of women’s status in the 1980s, feminist political scientists in Scandinavia and Australia turned their eyes to the state activity and its institutions. By deriving an idea of the transformation of gender relations in society from their experiences and observations, these scholars invented a new feminist theory, state feminism.
12 Michelle Barrett (1987) and Mary McIntosh (1978) explore how the state sustains women’s oppression and subordination within capitalism, while indicating that the state only indirectly oppresses women because such oppression results from capitalist society that fundamentally shapes social, economic and political relations and its class composed of male capitalists. 13 The countermeasures against the patriarchal society are to organize small women’s groups and consciousness-raising groups to overcome the sense of inferiority to men and to develop their own solidarity as an oppressed group (Ferguson 1984; Ketchum and Pierce 1979).
A Path Toward Gender Equality: State Feminism in Japan by Yoshie Kobayashi