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By Batzel J.J., Timischl-Teschl S., Kappel F.

This paper considers a version of the human cardiovascular-respiratory controlsystem with one and delivery delays within the nation equations describing the respiratorysystem. The effectiveness of the regulate of the air flow cost V˙A is stimulated through suchtransport delays simply because blood gases has to be transported a actual distance from the lungs to the sensory websites the place those gases are measured. the fast time period cardiovascular keep watch over method doesn't contain such shipping delays even if delays do come up in different contexts corresponding to the baroreflex loop (see [46]) for instance. This baroreflex hold up isn't thought of right here. The interplay among center price, blood strain, cardiac output, and blood vessel resistance is kind of complicated and given the constrained wisdom to be had of this interplay, we are going to version the cardiovascular regulate mechanism through an optimum keep watch over derived from regulate thought. This keep watch over may be stabilizing and is an affordable procedure in keeping with mathematical issues in addition to being extra influenced by means of the remark that many physiologists cite optimization as a possible impression within the evolution of organic structures (see, e.g., Kenner [29] or Swan [62]). during this paper we adapt a version, formerly thought of (Timischl [63] and Timischl et al. [64]), to incorporate the consequences of 1 and delivery delays.We will first enforce an optimum keep watch over for the mixed cardiovascular-respiratory version with one nation house delay.We will then think about the results of a moment hold up within the nation area via modeling the breathing keep watch over through an empirical formulation with hold up whereas the the advanced relationships within the cardiovascular keep an eye on will nonetheless be modeled via optimum keep watch over. This moment shipping hold up linked to the sensory method of the breathing keep an eye on performs a big position in respiration balance. As an program of this version we are going to give some thought to congestive center failure the place this delivery hold up is greater than common and the transition from the quiet conscious country to degree four (NREM) sleep. The version can be utilized to review the interplay among cardiovascular and respiration functionality in numerous events in addition to to contemplate the effect of optimum functionality in physiological keep watch over method functionality.

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S. G. R. ) Handbook of Physiology, Section 3: The Respiratory System, Volume II, Control of Breathing, Part 2, Am. Phys. Soc. Bethesda, Maryland, 1986 Appendix We assume the following: PAO2 = PaO2 , PACO2 = PaCO2 , PBO2 = PBvO2 , PBCO2 = PBvCO2 , PTO2 = PT vO2 , PTCO2 = PT vCO2 , where v = mixed venous blood, T is tissue compartment. Further we assume: – the alveoli and pulmonary capillaries are single well-mixed spaces; – constant temperature, pressure and humidity are maintained in the gas compartment; – gas exchange is by diffusion; ventilatory dead space is incorporated via the optimal control V˙A for the optimal case and control gains Gc and Gp for the empirical case (see text); – the delay in the respiratory controller signal to effector muscles is zero; – delay in the baroreceptor signal to the controller and from controller to effector muscles is zero; – metabolic rates and other parameters are constant in a given state; Cardiovascular-respiratory control system 335 – pH effects on dissociation laws and other factors are ignored or incorporated into parameters; – acid/base buffering, material transfer across the blood brain barrier, and tissue buffering effects are ignored; – no inter-cardiac shunting occurs; – intrathoracic pressure is ignored for this average flow model; – unidirectional non-pulsatile blood flow through the heart is assumed; hence, blood flow and blood pressure have to be interpreted as mean values over the length of a pulse; – fixed blood volume V0 is assumed.

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Univ. Bari. Nr. 201, 1984 26. : Spline approximation for retarded systems and the Riccati equation. Siam J. Control Optim. 25 (4), 1082–1117 (1987) 27. : A model for the cardiovascular system under an ergometric workload. Surv. Math. Ind. 7, 239–250 (1997) 28. : Physiology of the heart: 2nd edition. Raven Press, NY, 1992 29. : Physical and mathematical modeling in cardiovascular systems. C. R. J. ) Clinical and Research Applications of Engineering Principles, University Park Press, Baltimore, 1979, pp.

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A cardiovascular-respiratory control system model including state delay with application to congestive heart failure in humans by Batzel J.J., Timischl-Teschl S., Kappel F.


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